De Essenen worden soms gelijkgesteld met de sekte in Qumran (zie verderop), vlak bij de Dode Zee , omdat Plinius de Oudere schreef dat de Essenen bij de Dode Zee woonden. Druze constitute a small minority, not quite 10%, of Israel’s Arab population. The influence of the Christian incarnation precedent must have been too widespread and too apparent to have escaped the attention of the early Moslem thinkers. In the meantime an "Opposer" (Ḍudd) 2 is created by the same process of emanation, a kind of antagonist to the "Universal Mind," whose object it is to nullify the work of the Mind. The Druze are one of the largest minority groups in the Middle East. You may have hard or soft drusen. ninety years ago and before many original sources were brought to light, gives us an excellent internal interpretation of the Druze religion but does not go far in disentangling the different fibers in the intricate and complex web of the system and in tracing them back to the remote origins in the various religions or philosophical and metaphysical schools of thought. In 1957, the Israeli government designated the Druze a distinct ethnic community at the request of its communal leaders. 39-40. Solving the 2,000 Year Old Mystery of the Druze. See one of his parables in de Sacy, Chrestomathie Arabe (Paris, 1826), I, 304-309. There is neither "how," "when" nor "where" about him: he is incomprehensible. The Ismā‘īliyyah sect, from whose bosom Druzism sprang as did also the Assassins of Crusading fame, together with al-Qarāmiṭah, which between the ninth and twelfth centuries swept through Western Asia, had both venerated certain descendants of ‘Ali and hailed them as infallible rulers of the world. Lebanese Druze (Arabic: دروز لبنان ‎, romanized: durūz lubnān) are Druze people with Lebanese citizenship. Following the Ismā‘īliyyah precedent, Ḥamzah, in his Kitāb al-Naqḍ al-Khafi, went so far as to abolish the so-called five pillars of Islam, including fasting, pilgrimage and almsgiving, and substituted for them four articles of faith relating to the knowledge of God, of Ḥamzah, the ministers, and the seven moral precepts. This secret ceremony has been witnessed and described by only one or two outsiders throughout the whole history of the Druze religion. 32:6 Ibid., p. 16; al-Shahrastāni, op. In Allah there are no attributes distinct from his essence. Whimsical Character of al-Ḥakīm:—The basic and distinctive dogma of Druze theology is the deification of the young Fāṭimite Caliph (996-1020). 3. Druze abstain from wine and tobacco, as there are clear prohibitions against any practice that could involve profanity of their religion. Another Druze revolt led to a national uprising and the overthrow of Pres. 54-55. 37:2 E. Blochet, Le Messianisme, op. 39:2 Louis Ginzberg, article "Adam Kadmon," Jewish Encyclopaedia. cit., I, 261 seq. 31:1 Ḥamzah may have had a hand in the conspiracy. The Druze are a religious sect. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The Druze … The New Testament does not mention them and accounts given by Josephus, Philo of Alexandria, and Pliny the Elder sometimes differ in significant details, Below these inferior ministers stand the rank and file of Druze believers. cit. Layish, A. 27:1 Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ed. 3-4. Even in other than Shī‘ite circles of Islam, the elevation of a mortal to the ranks of the deity finds not an altogether. Only an elite of initiates, known as ʿuqqāl (“knowers”), participate fully in their religious services and have access to the secret teachings of the scriptures, Al-Ḥikmah al-Sharīfah. Hard drusen are small, and they are located far apart from each other. 7 ‘Ali-God adherents are also to be found today in a sect of Turcoman peasants at Qars (Ardaghān) whose very name "‘Ali-Ilāhi" 8 betrays their characteristic belief. As a corollary to that, the Druzes consider all former religions, including Christianity, Judaism and. I, pp. Al-Ḥākim disappeared mysteriously in 1021, and the movement was persecuted under his successor, al-Zāḥir. The Disappearance and Triumphal Return of al-Ḥākim:—Closely allied to the incarnational theory, and working out as a corollary from it, was the belief in the immortal character of the Imām in whose case "disappearance" (ghaybah) takes the place of death and whose final "return" (raj‘ah) is expected so that he may lead his people in triumph to a new and happy age. 3, The Mystic Element:—Akin to the esoteric conception of the scriptures is the principle of mysticism which found its highest expression in Islam in the Ṣūfi movement and traces of which are prominent in the Druze initiate view of life. cit., pp. Translated by T. Haarbrücker under the title Asch-Schahrastāni, Religionspartheien and Philosophen-Schulen (Halle, 1850). Few people know about the Druze, a mysterious, 1,000 year old religion in Lebanon. The expression of the "hidden Imām" Shī‘ite doctrine 1 was a reflex of Isaiah, chapter XI. The Druze are a monotheistic, Abrahamic religious group numbering around one million adherents. Lapousterle, J.P.H. This Bahā’-al-Dīn may have been of Christian origin 1 as his writings reveal unusual familiarity with the New Testament and Christian liturgy. 246, 274, 362; E. G. Browne, Persian Literature under Tartar Dominion (Cambridge University Press, 1920), pp. Jesus' apocalyptic teachings seem to align with them a lot. 2 His freakishness only serves to intensify the belief in his superhuman character. In 2011, however, he backed the pro-Syrian Hezbollah in Lebanon’s political crisis. 1. 29:6 Vorlesungen über den Islam (2nd ed., Heidelberg, 1925), pp. In so doing, he indicated his dedication for Arab unity over either pro-Western or pro-Syrian orientations. While the free essays can give you inspiration for writing, they cannot be used 'as is' because they will not meet your assignment's requirements. The Bāṭiniyyah:—Having deviated from the letter as well as from the word of Allah as revealed in the Koran, and without seeming to abrogate altogether its legislative precepts, certain schools of thought, designated by orthodox theologians Bāṭiniyyah, found it expedient to resort to a new and ingenious device—that of interpreting the religious facts esoterically or allegorically. From the supreme God there proceed a number of beings in a descending scale of dignity who are arranged in pairs, male and female.". [1] Why did the Druze come to the Middle East? 33:2 al-Shahrastāni, I, 55; Mas‘ūdi, Murūj al-Dhahab, Texte et Traduction par C. Barbier de Meynard (Paris, 1871), VI, 20. Learn more about the Druze in … But the "Brethren of Purity" have perhaps contributed more than any one else towards the introduction into and the formulation of the emanation-demiurge idea in Islam, and that because through their religious philosophic works, 3 which were encyclopaedic in their character, they not only gave technical expression in Arabic to the foreign concepts involved but popularized the concepts and gave the expressions currency. The fact that al-Ḥakīm introduced many reforms regulating weights and measures, fought immorality with police ordinances and succeeded in establishing a religious community that has survived for nine centuries like a fossil—and if ever there was a fossil in history that certainly is the Druze community—amidst a hostile environment indicates that he was not the kind of a maniac or fool whose biography these early writers have left us. F. Dieterici (Die Abhandlungen der Ichwān eṣ-Ṣafa, Leipzig, 2883), pp. 97, 505. Druze Times is a digital media and news platform that aims to increase the happiness and wellbeing of Druze people across the world. Essenes is similar to these topics: Sadducees, Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period, Jewish Christian and more. 6 Besides, there is no gainsaying the fact. Essene, member of a religious sect or brotherhood that flourished in Palestine from about the 2nd century bc to the end of the 1st century ad. That such influence was clearly recognized by early Moslem scholars is evinced by the fact that al-Baghdādi, 5 for instance, goes so far as to exclude the Bāṭiniyyah, including the Qarāmiṭah and Ismā‘īliyyah, from the list of Moslem sects and to classify them under Majūs (Magians), i.e., Zoroastrians. For all members, friends and fans of the Druze community in South Australia. Also the heavens are seven, the earths are seven, the climates are seven, the height of man by his own span is seven, and the orifices in his face are seven. They call themselves muwaḥḥidūn (“unitarians”). determine the periods that elapsed between one manifestation and the other. In 1925 Druze leader Sulṭān al-Aṭrash led a revolt against French rule. 28:7 R. Dussaud, Histoire et Religion des Nosairis (Paris, 1904), p. 53. 37:3 Al-Tamīmi, Taqsīm al-‘Ulūm, MS.; Ḥamzah, Mīthāq al-Nisā’, MS. 38:3 Al-Tamīmi, Taqsīm al-‘Ulūm, MS.; ‘Abd-al-Ghaffār, Majra al-Zamān, MS. = Henri Guys, Théogonie des Druses ou Abrégé de leur Système Religieux, traduit de l’Arabe (Paris, 1863), pp. A tradition (ḥadīth) puts in the mouth of the Prophet himself the following words: "The Qadarites are the Magians of my people." Margoliouth (Leyden, 1907), I, 302; Duncan B. Macdonald, op. The doctrine of "Opposers," or the simultaneous revelation of the Deity in a good principle and an evil principle, parallels the Zoroastrian dualistic doctrine and reminds us of the Syzygy theory in the pseudo-Clementines. Ḥamzah seems to have been favoured by al-Ḥākim, however, and al-Darāzī was declared an apostate within the movement and later disappeared (it is believed that al-Ḥākim ordered him killed). In 2019, there were 143,000 Druze living in Israel and the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 1.6% of the total population of Israel and the Golan Heights. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Druze faith is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion, and an ethnoreligious esoteric group originating from the Near East who self identify as unitarians (Arabic: موحدين ‎, romanized: muwaḥḥidīn). The Essenes And Qumran Term paper. Like Neo-Platonism and Gnosticism, the Nuṣayriyyah assume an agent of creation, a demiurge, in the person of ‘Ali. Truth, according to the cardinal Bāṭiniyyah concept, is to be ascertained by the discovery of an inner meaning (bāṭin, hence the appellation Bāṭiniyyah = Innerites) of which the outer form is a mere veil intended to keep the truth from the eyes of the uninitiate. 26:1 Dhayl Ta‘rīkh Dimashq, ed. His opposition to Camille Chamoun, including instigating an uprising against him in 1958, also helped earn him widespread respect among Arab nationalists. Prior to the rise of Druzism, different Shī‘ah sects have held different shades of the belief that ‘Ali and his successor Imāms were infallible supernatural beings endowed to some degree with the divine essence. Al-Baghdādi, al-Farq bayn al-Firaq, ed. The second advent of Christ was paralleled by the "return" of the Mahdi bringing politico-religious restoration. The present study is based on twenty or more original manuscripts, many of which are in the Robert Garrett collection at Princeton University. 2, Following their spiritual ancestors, the Ismā‘īliyyah, the Druzes also believe in seven heavens, seven seas, seven earths and seven hidden Imāms. Corrections? They lie not far from Bāniyās, ancient Caesarea Philippi. Bedr (Cairo, 1910), partly done into English by Kate Chambers Seelye and entitled Moslem Schisms and Sects (New York, 1920). al-Qalqashandi, Ṣubḥ al-A‘sha (Cairo, 1918), XIII, 248-249. 31-42. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. 35:2 See Goldziher, "Neuplatonische and gnostische Elemente im Ḥadīt," Zeitschrift für Assyriologie (1909), XXII, 317 seq. Even though the faith originally developed out of Ismaili Islam, Druze do not identify as Muslims. Marriage, Divorce and Succession in the Druze Family. Modern European Semitic scholars, led by Ignacz Goldziher, have, however, been inclined to underrate the eastern influence. After Jumblatt’s assassination in 1977, his son Walid took over the political leadership of the Druze community in Lebanon. Seven a Sacred Number:—As in the case of the "periods" between the successive incarnations, so in the case of the prophetic successions, the "periods" or, "cycles" are all nicely arranged and determined by cabalistic figuring in which the numbers seven and seventy, 1 as is to be expected, take a prominent place. From the 16th to the 19th century, a series of powerful feudal lords dominated Druze political life. 25:1 True to the principle of taqiyyah, Ṣāliḥ ibn-Yaḥya, himself probably a Druze, from whose pen we have the best history of Beirūt (Ta’rīkh, ed. 29:5 Recherches sur la domination arabe, le chiitisme et les croyances messianiques sous le khalifat des omayyades (Amsterdam, 1894), pp. ., is it not then meet to believe that our Lord [al-Ḥakīm] is a more worthy means through whom God manifests to the world his power and behind whom he conceals himself?" A number of Jewish Christian sects, such as the Essenes and Nazarenes, adopted this gnostic view, which, combined with Persian and old Babylonian mythology, furnished Mani with the doctrine of the original man. See also Flügel, Mani (Leipzig, 1862), pp. 4 The Zoroastrian influence is further shown by the reference to God as the "light" with the opposing principle as the "darkness." 370-375; Browne, "Literature and Doctrine of the Ḥurūfi Sect," Journal Royal Asiatic Society, Jan., 1898. And whereas many eminent scholars in recent times, chief among whom stands the late Ignacz Goldziher of the University of Budapest, have addressed themselves to the task of analyzing the component elements that entered into the composition of Sunni (orthodox) and Shī‘ite Islam, the Druze sect still remains without an interpreter in the field of the history of religion. Death, outsiders continued to attach his name to the Middle East creation, a sort of proxy demiurge. Of judgment he promotes and demotes whomsoever he pleases, a demiurge, in the Druze,. 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