Pierson, Paul 2000. These pressures led to worldwide convergence on an apparently similar set of institutional practices, as identified in the work of Meyer and his colleagues (Meyer, Boli, Thomas, & Ramirez, 1997), who built on Durkheim as much as Weber. Understanding Institutional Weakness: Lessons from Latin America, unpublished manuscript. Ostrom, Elinor 1996. Brinks, Daniel M. Element abstract views reflect the number of visits to the element page. 1994. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Hence, institutional arrangements such as congressional committees could avoid the chaos of multidimensional voting spaces, and instead produce so-called structure-induced equilibrium outcomes. Consequently, the rules are also not in equilibrium. 2008. However, it is one that may plausibly fit well with many of the concerns of scholars interested in spatial development. (eds. Bathelt, H., & Glückler, J. Weber depicted a world that was becoming increasingly rationalized, deflating the pneuma of prophecy, silencing the warring voices of different gods, and replacing them with a single set of imperatives based around bureaucratic and organizational rationality. Brinks, Daniel M. and Abby Blass 2017. W. Shrum, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. (Eds.). Conran, James , and Kathleen A. Thelen . “A Theory of Gradual Institutional Change.” In Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency, and Power. Torres Wong, Marcela . Elite Theory Amengual, Matthew 2016. Meyer, J. W., Boli, J., Thomas, G. M., & Ramirez, F. O. 1998. Brinks, Daniel M. and Sandra Botero . [sociological] institutional theory is really a theory of how conformity occurs in already existing fields. “Good Governance: The Inflation of an Idea.” In Planning Ideas That Matter: Livability, Territoriality, Governance, and Reflective Practice. 2011. 2016. 2007. 44/9: 1267–1297. 2002. Forthcoming. New institutional theory has become a major approach to the social sciences generally. The theoretical approaches include elite theory, group theory, political systems theory and institutionalism, policy output analysis, incremental theory and rational-choice theory which are primarily concerned with public policy-making as a process. Comparative Political Studies. Huber, John D. and Charles R. Shipan . In other words, an institution is only an institution because everyone in the relevant community of actors believes it to be an institution. For historical institutionalists, as for economic geographers (Grabher, 1993), path dependence appeared to offer an account of how history mattered. If researchers have better defined accounts of institutions, and of the precise ways in which they affect, for example, economic development, they will be able to build better accounts of how (apparently) different institutions may lead to similar outcomes in some instances, while (apparently) similar institutions lead to different outcomes in other instances. Hochstetler, Kathryn and Margaret Keck . In each, a subsequent wave of scholars has reacted against institutional determinism, looking to incorporate the possibility of change, by explaining the underlying forces that shape institutions, but creating new perplexities as a consequence. 1986. Thus, stronger institutions may move outside of environmental expectations in an attempt to successfully ignore normative pressures. “Imported Institutions: Boon or Bane in the Developing World?” In Daniel M. Brinks , Steven Levitsky and M. Victoria Murillo , eds., Understanding Institutional Weakness: Lessons from Latin America. Exploring the interaction of space and networks in the creation of knowledge: An introduction. “The Politics in Institutional Change: Electoral Reform in Latin America, 1978–2002.” Party Politics 14(1): 5–30.